History of concrete. How it was produced and cleaned!

The history of concrete is very interesting. It shows the perseverance of a person in pursuing a goal and
teaches humility. Thanks to its use in strong, modern constructions, concrete cannot be considered a
minor building material. This substance has a rich past. The fact that in the days of ancient Rome no
cement trucks were in circulation does not mean that cultures of that time could not build from concrete.
They had their own ways of adapting and using building materials.
By learning about the history of concrete, we can understand better how we use it today. We have
compiled some key history facts along with famous and historic concrete structures to understand better
this absolutely amazing substance.
For this, we will consider concrete as a mixture of large and small particles combined with a type of
mixture. The mixture binds and holds the particles together, which can then be used as a building
material. We will also discuss similar but different materials. Throughout the history of culture, they have
built with materials such as:
Cement: This fine powder creates other materials such as mortar, concrete, stucco and grout. Cement
acts as a binding agent in these construction products. It is often made of limestone, but other possible
ingredients include clay, silica sand, and shells. Regardless of the component, the cement crumbles and
bonds with materials such as iron ore, and is then heated to high temperatures. The resulting product,
called clinker, is ground again into cement.
Mortar: The mortar bonds bricks, stones and other building materials. It is made of cement, sand and lime.
When the builders add water to the mix, the cement is activated and then hardens as it dries. The grout is
a similar product, but contains more water that flows between the cracks and crevices. Each mortar can
act as an adhesive for other building materials, from tiles to stone.
Brick: Sun-dried mud forms bricks. Sand, dirt, and other particles in the soil pass into these bricks, to
which people can also add wood or straw together with the water. After drying, the brick shrinks. Since it is
not put in a curing oven but it is air-dried instead, and it is unsuitable for a humid climate.

The above materials belong to the same family, but concrete is a stronger substance. He has been with us
all the time on countless construction projects in various forms. Read on to learn more about the history of
concrete and how the material has changed over the years.

History of concrete. The earliest uses of concrete
What we consider concrete today is somewhat different from the first uses of it. However, similar materials
have had their use throughout history. The have been used to build:
– Bridges
– Expensive Sculptural structures
– Buildings
– Roofs
Cultures around the world made these and other buildings of concrete and concrete-like substances. As
the material has changed over the years, it’s hard to say for how long concrete has existed. About a
period of time, we know that it had existed for thousands of years before our era. Cultures have been
using concrete for years:
6500 BC: The first concrete buildings were built that year. Bedouins created these historic concrete
structures in modern Syria and Jordan. Over the time, the early constructions have become the ground for
improving techniques.
3000 BC: At that time, the Egyptians used mud mixed with straw to make building material to create
tombs. They also developed and used gypsum and lime mortars to connect bricks. Around the same time,
builders in China used a form of cement made of sticky rice.
700 BC: Bedouins discovered cement that cured underwater and created furnaces to produce concrete
mortar. They used this mortar to build floors, houses and other structures. During that time, they also
started compacting concrete material and understood that the substance would have acted well if it if it
had been too saturated.
600 BC: The Greeks discovered a natural substance that was able to make concrete when it mixed with
lime. Although they used such substance, they were not as advanced in specific techniques as other
200 BC: By that time, the Romans had perfected concrete, though differently than today. The Romans
created most of the structures from loose rocks and materials by bonding them with mortar. They even
used bricks in combination with their own version of cement. The use of unstructured blocks solidified the
concrete as a construction and finishing product.
1414: Manuscripts explaining what concrete was for a long time disappeared due to the fall of the Roman
Empire and the confusion caused by it. However, soon after the emotions subsided, concrete found its
recognition again among the builders of that period. That year was one of the many turning points in the
history of concrete. This started a chain reaction to the discovery of new ways to make and use concrete
for the next centuries.
1793: John Smeaton created a more efficient method of producing hydraulic lime in 1793. The product
was used to solidify the cement, and the modernized production facilitated the making of concrete and its
quick binding.
1824: That year was very important in the history of concrete, because the bricklayer Joseph Aspdin
created Portland cement. Named as such because it was similar to the stones of Portland, England,
Portland cement was a durable form of building material. Aspdin made cement by burning chalk and clay
in a kiln. Later, he decided to add limestone to the clay to create a clinker.
Aspdin has helped increase the use of cement and concrete in modern construction. In his quest to create
a better alternative to Roman building material, he inspired competitors to create even better versions of
their Portland cement.
With the earliest use of cement and concrete, a product evolution took place. We have developed many
ways to produce this substance to make it work better. This has influenced the history of concrete

History of concrete remover

History of concrete. How has concrete changed over the years?
Over the years, concrete has become a more efficient material. We have moved from using natural
cement-like substances to enhancing natural materials through man-made processes. With the
advancement of technology, new methods of producing concrete and cement appeared.

At the end of the 19th century, people in Germany, France and the United States simultaneously
developed steel reinforced concrete. At that time, it was used for industrial construction, but later it played
an important role in residential buildings and other structures as well.
The Portland cement that Joseph Aspdin created was not exactly the same as the one we produce today.
Although Aspdin did not consider specific factors or temperatures for the production of Portland cement,
we know that it could not have been able to reach the high temperatures we use today to heat the
Today we have a standard formula for Portland Cement. It was created in 1917 by the American Society
for Testing and Materials together with the National Bureau of Standards. The standard formula created a
consistent quality no matter when and where the substance was produced.
Even before the Portland Cement formula was developed, builders had been re-using concrete in projects
around the world. At the beginning of the 20th century, concrete regained public acceptance as a building
material. Constructions such as:
– A residential building in Paris from 1902
– The first concrete skyscraper in Ohio in 1904
– A 328-foot bridge in Rome in 1911
After these and other buildings, finished concrete was developed. In 1913, the material was delivered to
Baltimore, Maryland. This helped to increase the productivity of the workplaces as workers no longer had
to mix concrete on site. Instead, it was obtained pre-mixed from the factory in early versions of what we
now call trucks for cement mixer.
A few decades later, we discovered that the production of small air bubbles, called air pores, improved
concrete. Following the introduction of air-permeable substances into concrete in 1930, the building
material was easier to work with and less prone to freezing. From that time on, architects in colder
climates could choose this material without fear of causing cracks or leakage.
At about the same time, the builders developed a kind of concrete for thin walls. Roofs, domes, arches
and other similar structures were made of a thin concrete layer. Due to the strong, rounded shapes of
these structures, they did not require thick layers of material. The light weight of thin-layer concrete makes
the rest of the building safe and less likely to collapse as it does not have to support heavy material.
Working with concrete, we have made it a stronger and more resistant building material. We discovered
easier ways to make, transport and use it. Along with these discoveries, builders and architects
constructed buildings in different styles. Classic, modern and other concrete structures including
structures such as:
– Paul Rudolph Hall of Yale University
– Science Hills Museum in Japan
– Jubilee Church outside Rome
– Salk Institute Research Center in California
– Villa Saitan residential complex in Japan
– National Museum of Brazil
These buildings demonstrate the versatility of concrete as a building material. As technology advanced,
builders and architects could create curves, cut-outs the architects were able to create curves, cut-outs,
and other eye-catching structural elements by using concrete. The flexibility of the substance allowed it to
build churches, museums, housing and other buildings, as well as some historical concrete structures.

History of concrete

History of concrete. Famous constructions made possible by concrete

The history of concrete consists of thousands, if not millions, of buildings around the world. It was from this
material that many historic and recognizable buildings were created. Whether they were built thousands of
years ago or during this century, some specific structures are known to all of us. Among them we can find:
Pantheon: The Pantheon in Rome is the largest concrete dome that is not reinforced. Despite its
completion in 125, the Pantheon still stands in Rome to this day. It is 142 feet in diameter with an oculus.
Great Wall of China: this icon was made of concrete and was built over many centuries. Its formation
began in the third century BC or several centuries earlier.
Eddystone Lighthouse: This third lighthouse, located off the coast of southern England, was built in 1700
using John Smeaton’s hydraulic lime. The only reason this old concrete structure failed was because the
rocks had eroded over time.
Concrete Street: In 1891, Ohio became the site of the first concrete street. Known as Court Street, it still
exists. Even though George Bartholomew created the street more than 100 years ago, it is twice stronger
than the concrete used in modern housing projects. The strength has enabled it to withstand heavy traffic
in that area.
Concrete Street: In 1891, Ohio became the site of the first concrete street. Known as Court Street, it still
exists. Even though George Bartholomew created the street more than 100 years ago, it is twice stronger
than the concrete used in modern housing projects. The strength has enabled it to withstand heavy traffic
in that area.
Panama Canal: After unsuccessful attempts to create an ingenious transport solution, the construction of
the Panama Canal began in 1904. After 10 years, the project was completed. Concrete played a key role
in the locks that used to lift ships as they move through the canal. After its completion, many countries and
ports were finally connected.
Hoover Dam: The dam itself, completed in 1935, required over 3 million yards of concrete. It took another
million yards to build the power plant and other dam structures. The builders, however, did not pour the
concrete into one mass because it would have cracked and it would have taken too long to harden.
Instead, the developers filled the blocks with concrete to build columns. Tests twenty years later showed
that the concrete strengthened over the time.
Grand Coulee Dam: Less than 10 years after the Hoover Dam was completed, the builders created the
most massive concrete structure ever built. The Grand Coulee Dam in Washington. It needed 12 million
yards of concrete and it was completed in 1942. As it needed four times as much concrete as the Hoover
Dam, the builders used a 2 km long conveyor belt to transport the material to the construction site. The
constructors used the same method they adopted to build the Hoover Dam for the Grand Coulee Dam,
only on a much larger scale.
Sydney Opera House: This concrete structure adopted the title of the largest concrete structure in the
Southern Hemisphere. Construction began in 1959 and was completed in 1973. The project presented
many challenges, but its completion provided an excellent concrete structure. The Sydney Opera House
now serves as a destination for culture and tourists from all over the world.
Burj Khalifa: Located in Dubai, Burj Khalifa is made of reinforced concrete. This building will hold the title
of the tallest building in the world until the completion of the Jeddah Tower. Burj Khalifa used over 400,000
cubic meters of concrete together with over 60,000 tons of reinforcement.
These modern and historical structures would have been impossible without the use of concrete. Their
height, strength, size and many others reflect the properties and functionality of concrete. The usefulness

of concrete is the same as in ancient times. Today and in the far future, concrete will continue to be used
to build innovative buildings, homes, flats, hotels, sculptures and more.

History of concrete. Concrete resistance to dirt

The history of concrete is very interesting, right? The history of liquids for removing concrete and cleaning
it is also interesting. We already know a lot about the durability of concrete, but what about its
susceptibility to dirt? Is concrete cleaning easy? Can concrete be damaged by chemical fluids?
Unfortunately, concrete is susceptible to all kinds of dirt. It can get dirty with car oil, grease, and many
other substances that soak into the concrete and are difficult to remove. Since concrete has existed, there
have been also agents and solvents for its cleaning. One of the most popular substance that cleans
concrete is hydrochloric acid. Unfortunately, this acid can damage concrete, can cause rust, and is also
dangerous for users. There are numerous acid combinations on the market to remove concrete or clean a
concrete surface. BIO fluids, which are safe for zinc, aluminium, plastic, glass and many other delicate
surfaces, have become a real revelation and a revolution. There is only one such liquid on the European
market, and it is Betoff-Bio. Another interesting liquid for cleaning concrete surfaces and removing dried
concrete from machines is Betoff. Betoff fluid is distinguished by the fact that it removes dried concrete by
penetrating it. Acid-based fluids remove concrete only on the surface, layer by layer, which prolongs the
working time and increases its costs.
Innovative fluids for removing concrete and cleaning concrete surfaces are available at betoff.eu

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